header image

DIY or The Machine?

The modern music industry is precarious business. Though there have been changes in market performance similar to the “disco bust”, current trends are so multi-faceted that it is difficult to pin down how things developed or speculate about where they are headed. Several reasons for the current economic situation of the music industry are posed in this series of articles. The variety of plausible reasons shows this is a multi-pronged problem. Some of these arguments hold weight, while others lack substance or fail to connect the dots.

I agree with Strompf when he states that the industry has failed to find artists that interest consumers. I also agree with him about the staffing model of labels diminishing. However, I would go a step further in arguing that the quality of staffing at record labels is the problem, due to a lack of education and the power of networking within the industry. The trajectory for success in the music industry used to be working your way up from the mailroom, by serving an apprenticeship of sorts. However, now your father can buy you the presidency of a record label, and that is precisely how one head of a record label I will not name here acquired his position. These sorts of assignments of friends happens so often that the music industry makes George Bush look like an equal opportunity employer.

Drakoulias touches upon the fact that the industry did not take advantage of American Idol, while I believe that American Idol helped create some of the problems the industry now faces. People in America began to focus their musical culture around reality television, which in turn churned out amateur artists yearly. I believe this helped contribute to the phenomena that Drakoulias notes, but doesn’t connect to American Idol- that people do not feel invested in artists the way they used to be. Additionally, American Idol ostracized the “art” crowd by exposing the superficial nature of the inner workings of the industry. Some may argue that in voting for the winner and seeing their development unfold would give fans a chance to feel a deep, lasting connection with the artist. I would argue, however, that though the show has helped a few talented singers’ careers, the engagement with the artist is fleeting due to the cyclical nature of the show.

At the same time, we have not really seen any new artists, and it is the same artists releasing albums over and over again- Jay-Z, Beyonce, Eminem, Mariah Carey, etc. As Drakoulias notes, it is only the earlier acts that command the sort of devotion that older acts used to (before Lady Gaga, that is). The articles addressed this, and other issues, but none really focused on the power of Youtube in recent years as the marker of a musician. Now, we not only marvel at the fact that Lady Gaga sold a million copies of her record, but that her video had 1 million views. And that video may be attached to pop-up ads and includes its own ad for Lady Gaga’s headphones and Virgin Mobile phones within it. The Lady Gaga phenomena is proving Rojas wrong in his assertion that pop music cannot produce a viable artist. Unfortunately, she is doing this without limiting corporate involvement, and then screams bloody murder when Fox edits her performance on American Idol. She will find quickly that she will not be able to balance the level of artistry she would like to within the corporate world. Perhaps Gaga’s recent success is more likely the music industry’s dying grasp at making itself seem relevant, as dance music artist M.I.A. claimed in an interview, or maybe it is the sign of things to come. Should we all try to “do it ourselves” as M.I.A proclaims or insert ourselves in the machine in order to change it, as Lady Gaga claims she is doing?

Art Can Change the World

I am disheartened by the trend amongst academics and artists stating that art cannot change the world. It changes the world every day. What do we mean by change, then? A complete upheaval of everything we know of in the physical world? If that is the case, then perhaps art cannot change the world. But it can create an upheaval of everything we know of in our minds, and since everything about our existence is informed by our brains, including our identity, I believe art changes the world more than any force in society. – Just a thought


Graffiti- Subversive Communication

Note: I have decided to address hip-hop in a series of posts. This one focuses on graffiti, I will also do some artist spotlights, discuss the article on Jay Z, and write a post about the sexism I experienced in the studio environment.

For the art community in New York, grafiiti on the subways stood for a time when New York was happening. With its dissapearance, came the gradual Americanization of the city. It came to not only represent a communication between black and Hispanic communities, as Tricia Rose notes in her article, but a city under siege by artistry. Ironically, after graffiti started being cleaned off of our public canvasses, Kmarts and Targets emerged throughout Manhattan, taking over spots that were generally inhabited by small businesses, such as the Lower East Side. The age of graffiti-laden New York generates nostalgia for those of us who grew up here and harkens back to a time when the city was gritty, art was flourishing, and prostitutes ruled 42nd street over Walt Disney.

I grew up at the cusp of both eras and even made my own attempt at becoming a graffiti artist, calling myself “Shorty 140” and tagging on the walls of my junior high school, until a group of my friends and I were “jumped” by another “posse” in the school. (Both gangs were female gangs, which is interesting since Tricia Rose notes that females who tagged were considered to be promiscuous. It seems by the early nineties, a lot of this stigma may have been removed.) For us, tagging was a way of showing that we had status and solidarity; in essence, it proved that we belonged to something.

However, graffiti, which Tricia Rose aptly points out, is not as easy to comodify as music (or break dancing, for that matter), and it still flourishes as art form internationally, although it is usually confined to certain spaces. In high school, a friend of mine used graffiti to expose the wrong-doings of our dictatorial principal at Brooklyn Tech, who had a habit of physically assaulting students and suspending or expelling any student who did not fit the mold. In his case, although he was caught, he used graffiti on the staircases of our very large building to expose the wrongdoings of the establishment. This occupation of public space is what makes graffiti anti-consumer by nature.

Death to Disco?

Picture this: feathers, whistle blowing, sex on the dance floor, a group called Two Tons of Fun, lots of blinking lights, and drugs. That is a description I once received about the gay disco scene in New York in the seventies. Doyle is spot on with his assessment that disco provided leisure time that was spent as an alternative to society and that it allowed “the experience of contradiction to continue.” It continued to be true with the dance music of the 80s, the underground rave scene of the 90s, and the continuing dance music craze that began in Europe in the early part of this decade that has spread to America.

Doyle is also accurate in his assertion that disco music takes away the phallic centrality of rock. This is evident in the elimination of the instrument most often associated with phallic symbolism, the guitar, aka “axe”. When you speak to people from the disco generation they recall that disco really took off in the mainstream with the emergence of the movie Saturday Night Fever. While it spread quickly through urban areas and to blacks, women, and Latinos, a backlash began to take form. The backlash against disco was performed mainly by white males and that protests were often staged at sporting events, illustrating that the disco was seen as a threat to phallic domination. (If you want to delve even further, you’ll find that the answer to their prayers came in the form of Bruce Springsteen- the John Wayne of rock-n-roll- in the late seventies.)

I would argue against Doyle, however, when he states that music cannot change the world, since I think an argument could be made that the disco scene helped forge courage in the gay community, as their lifestyle became more mainstream, to begin demanding their rights, a logical continuation to the Civil Rights movement which preceded it. In addition to the disco movement, the AIDS phenomenon thrust the gay community further into the limelight, yet in a negative way, as they were forced to defend their lifestyle. I think a connection between the arrival of AIDS and the so-called “death of disco” warrants a study to be conducted, if one hasn’t already.

Disco, as some of us know, is not dead. It has been re-packaged as pop or dance music. The last forty years, since the emergence of disco as a genre of music, can be seen as a pseudo-battle between disco and rock. New wave, heavy metal, grunge, hip-hop, pop-punk, indie and dance music are some of the crazes which illustrate this dynamic. It will be exciting to see what the result will be, but it is apparent that disco is here to stay. I remember when I worked at a music studio, I told this “rock” engineer that dance music would eventually dominate the music industry, and he looked at me like I had three heads. The recent success of Lady Gaga and the fact that Dr. Dre is currently working on a dance record serve to prove my point. Not only is dance music still alive, but the dance scene still provides a safe haven for alternative lifestyles dying to express themselves in our conformist culture.

The Beatles- Hijacked Authenticity?

Disclaimer: Sorry it took me so long to post this, but my love for the Beatles runs so deep that I had to treat this properly and write about it when I really had time to make a case in support of them.

In Coyle’s article, he makes the claim that the Beatles were less authentic than Elvis and proceeds to point out the reasons why, including as evidence Elvis’ lower class background, his proximity to the music he was mimicking, and some quotes he made in an interview in which he demonstrated that he was not a racist. First off, I think this is immature on Coyle’s part, as it seems he is attempting to prove that Elvis was essentially “more black” than the Beatles. I am not sure if he chose to make his case by discrediting the Beatles and the British invasion in response to other academics, but I think he should be able to make his case without pitting them against each other. However, since he chose to do so, I will now address his arguments below.

First off, I think it is important to note the context of Elvis’ career. Why does Coyle feel the need to defend Elvis’ reputation? Well, there was an “urban legend” that Elvis once said “the only thing negroes can do for me is buy my records and sign my shoes,” which was published in a white-run magazine called Sepia in 1957. I do not think there is credible evidence that he ever did say this, as is pointed out in the video below:

Elvis Makes Racist Remarks?

However, it notes the precarious relationship Elvis had with the African American community in terms of authenticity, and thus the need to defend it. While Coyle quotes Elvis giving credit to the black community in an interview with Jet magazine, and while I believe that Elvis did bring black music to the mainstream, in particular the legacy of black music in Memphis, as many black artists believe, I think it is important to also consider the historical relationship Elvis and the Beatles had with the Civil Rights movement. While John Lennon was supporting and quoting the Black Panthers in interviews, Elvis was meeting with Nixon to discuss how rock-n-roll culture was supporting the emergence of drug culture. As many of us know, Elvis was one of the first huge music stars to die of a drug overdose, but Nixon defends his honor in the video below by pointing out that Elvis did not use illegal drugs (at around 4:50 of Nixon video):

John Lennon on the Black Panthers

Elvis Meets Nixon

While many people will note that this was at a precarious point in Elvis’ career, I think it reveals something about the nature of his character and his intentions, as well as the relationship the Beatles had with the black community. While it is important to point out where these artists emerged from and what influences were reflected in their music as Coyle does, their actions throughout their careers are more telling in terms of their opinions on black culture. By teaming up with the president who was notorious for his civil rights abuses, Elvis came to represent the forces that sought to stifle the movement that was underway. The Beatles, on the other hand, routinely performed with their African American idols and gave credit to specific individuals for the shaping of their sound. John Lennon, specifically, was heavily involved in the Civil Rights movement to the point where he was being monitored by the secret services of the United States government and was eventually asked to leave the country on a technicality. (This is not a conspiracy theory, there is documented evidence from CIA files).

Additionally, the Beatles’ music transcended its African American influences. They incorporated psychedelia, folk, Latino music, Indian music, country and classical influences, whereas Elvis’ music tended to be confined to his African-American influences. The Beatles were musical geniuses that merged all these influences while managing to create a catalogue of standards that would survive the test of time. It is irresponsible of Coyle to represent the Beatles’ career as being predicated on the covers of black musicians and/or their style of music. Because he does this, the issue of authorship than becomes important to the argument. As many people know, the Beatles were one of the first groups that actually wrote the music they were performing. This music therefore more accurately represented their viewpoints on the world. While their early music tended to focus on teenage themes of heartache, they would eventually begin to pen protest songs such as Blackbird, a tribute to Rosa Parks, Taxman, and Revolution.

John Lennon and Yoko Ono- "Bed-in for Peace"

However, Coyle makes his argument by examining the Beatles’ early career. Their first album, Please Please Me, had eight original songs and six songs that werent originals. Of these original songs, I Saw Her Standing There, Please Please Me, and Love Me Do have become transcendent hits. While we hear some Little Richard inspired “woos” and obvious rock and doo-op-inspired elements, their interpretation of the style resembles less of a mimicry and more of an interpretation. I have included a link below, so you can judge for yourself. Regardless of this fact, I think what is important to note is that the Beatles would have had this success with or without the one or two covers they performed that were hits, and that their catalogue of music is so diverse that their artistic authenticity should not come into question, or at least should not be solely attributed to their proliferation of black culture.

The Beatles\’ \”Love Me Do\”

Regardless of this fact, I think what is important to note is that the Beatles would have had this success with or without the one or two covers they performed that were hits, and that their catalogue of music is so diverse that their artistic authenticity should not come into question, or at least should not be solely attributed to their proliferation of black culture.

I think it’s important to point out that The Beatles were influenced by Elvis, as well. However, as Ringo states in the Beatles Anthology documentary, they were drawn to Elvis due to his age, not his race, since they felt he was a young person playing the kind of music they liked. However, their musical knowledge of rock-n-roll was not limited to Elvis, and they were aware of the African American artists who forged that sound, so I would argue that their music was not a watered-down re-interpretation of Elvis, but an emalgamation of all of the influences they had to draw on, resulting in an original and unique sound that captivated the world and still does to this day. I would also argue that their encyclopedic knowledge of rock-n-roll contributed more to the credit given to African American artists, since they specifically mentioned these artists, than Elvis’ more general homage to black artists quoted in Coyle’s article.

Project Proposal

“Outsider” culture has been emulated and/or proliferated throughout the history of the music industry, sometimes blatantly and sometimes subtlety. Madonna was one of the first celebrities to openly embrace her gay following while simultaneously proliferating their culture to help her achieve pop-icon status, setting in motion a trail of pop-stars who would do the same, such as Kylie Minogue and Lady Gaga. Similarly, Ani DiFranco achieved unprecedented independent success by targeting the lesbian community and marketing herself as a bisexual, eventually branching out to a wider audience. Unlike the proliferation of black culture by whites whose target audience were other whites, the gay community upheld these icons while debating their authenticity. My paper will demonstrate the precarious relationship the gay community had with both artists while they struggled to balance the notion that their culture was being propagated with the iconic status they had bestowed upon them.

The Anthem of Generation X

Click here to watch Nirvana’s video for “Smells Like Teen Spirit”

“Smells like Teen Spirit”, released in 1992 by the band Nirvana, is the theme song for a generation raised on John Hughes’ movies, an era commonly referred to as Generation X (those born between 1968-1978). It heralded in an age of floppy hair, Converse sneakers, flannel shirts and ripped jeans. It laid the groundwork for the upswell of grunge music. The song encapsulated the anti-establishment, anti-consumer generation that would later bring us the internet, electric cars, solar panelling, and the movie Reality Bites. It embodied the angst, despair, and apathy of a youth movement in rebellion. Raised by parents from the hippie era, these teenagers noted that something wasn’t quite right with society, as their parents did. However, they matched this awareness with disillusionment, as opposed to activism. Fed up with the hypocrisy of their parent’s epoch, which heralded in both the Civil Rights movement and the consumer culture of the Reagan era, the song acknowledged this sentiment and the rising importance of the teenager in limbo simultaneously.

Click here to watch the ending scene from “The Breakfast Club”
This movie is about a group of teenagers who are in detention and deals with some common themes for Gen-Xers.

Generation X- Slackers, Sell-outs or Entrepreneurs?

Though Nirvana was not the pioneer of this movement and many people account the birth of grunge to bands such as the Pixies or Mudhoney, Nirvana shot to the heart of the mainstream, giving colossal acts such as Michael Jackson and Guns N Roses a run for their money on the charts. Three guys from a poor town in Seattle with an unassuming fashion sense and music stripped to its bare essentials sent shockwaves throughout the world. Their arrival on the music scene captured an energy and raw spirit that served as a backlash against the glam-inspired, capitalist spirit of excess that dominated the eighties.

Guns N Roses - Glammed Out

The song begins with Kurt Cobain’s lone guitar strumming chords for three measures, joined by Dave Grohl on the drums for one measure, followed by the bass of Kris Novoselic and an explosion of distorted guitar. The group is playing with the three member band dynamic at the song’s start, introducing themselves to us one at a time. They are letting us know right away that this is not your older sister’s rock band of the eighties. This is bass, distorted guitar, and drums driven by groove, dynamics and attitude, as opposed to embellishment and excess a la Metallica and Guns N Roses, who employed the typical two-guitar set up. (Kurt Cobain and Axl Rose, ironically, engaged in a fierce rivalry throughout his career). The music builds tension for several measures and finally resolves itself into a clean, melancholy two note guitar part, through a chorus pedal, over a pulsing bass. Cobain once attributed this dynamic of “hard and loud” and “soft and quiet” to the band the Pixies, who he claimed he was trying to imitate. The sound is not only characterized by this play with dynamics, but also by the speed with which they switch between the two- the effect being more jarring.

The Pixies

The Pixies

Click here to listen to the Pixie’s characteristic style on the song, “Debaser”

Kurt continues to loop these two notes as his voice whines scruffily “Load up on guns, bring your friends, its fun to lose and to pretend. She’s over-bored and self-assured. Oh no, I know a dirty word.” The lyrics are characteristically difficult to understand and can take on many different meanings. The lines could be a commentary on video game culture, a failed revolution, the military industrial complex, violence, apathy, and/or the teenage identity crisis in small-town USA. “Hello, hello, hello, how low?”, Cobain continues to moan in the pre-chorus, as the dynamics of the instrumentation begin to pick up momentum. This simple phrase is anthemic to a group of youngsters that would give rise to Prozac Nation, a generation characteristically riddled with mental problems. The lyrics are even more haunting when listened to in a modern context, since we are aware of Kurt Cobain’s eventual suicide after a short life and a long battle against heroin addiction, stress-related health issues and depression.

The song reaches its climax in the chorus, emphasized by the pumping, straight-ahead, crash-cymbal laden drum work of Dave Grohl, the brilliant musician who would later bring us the Foo Fighters. “With the lights out. It’s less dangerous,” Cobain screeches, “Here we are now. Entertain us.” These lines capture the essence of the backlash they were performing against the spirit of the MTV generation. They offer commentary on the corporate media who sought to keep people in the dark by providing them with mindless entertainment, what the academic, Noam Chomsky, refers to as “manufacturing consent.” He continues, “I feel stupid and contagious,” again describing the effects of media and advertising culture on the intellect and self-esteem of a teenager, which sells them products as if they had a disease no one would want to contract. “A mulatto, an albino, a mosquito, my libido,” Cobain continues in the most lyrically ambiguous line of the song. The notion is one of an outsider or perhaps people who are marginalized. A friend of mine interpreted the line to mean that Kurt’s ex drive was insignificant, similar to a mosquito, since sex did not motivate him, as it did most men.

Kurt Cobain Rolling Stone

Kurt Cobain on the Cover of Rolling Stone

The music then continues with a simple guitar riff that sounds like it is bending on the last note while the drums cut out, providing a rhythmic break. It contributes to the mental uncertainty of the song. Kurt then continues into the second verse with soft dynamics. “I’m worse at what I do best. And for this gift I feel blessed. Our little group has always been and always will until the end.” The implication is that a group of conscious outsiders will always exist, since society will never change. The view is fatalist and apathetic. The song continues into another pre-chorus, chorus, and instrumental break, where Kurt repeats the verse’s motif on the guitar, as opposed to performing a guitar solo or going into a bridge, giving the song its simple verse-chorus format. He holds the last note and allows it to continue to ring out.

The third verse is a bit more off-kilter than the rest. The two note guitar part is not present, but instead the guitar note from the instrumental break continues to ring out with feedback, building tension as it is perverts into a dissonant note. Kurt’s whiny growl is now more like a drone. The mental stability of the song has unravelled and the emotive quality is at its peak. Kurt moans, “And I forget just why I taste. Oh yeah, I guess it makes me smile. I found it hard, it’s hard to find. Oh well, whatever, nevermind.” This last line typifies the mentality of a teenager coming of age in the nineties, prepared to rebel but aimless in their rebellion with no real cause to latch on to except for superficiality. The song propels into the last chorus again, but this time Dave gives us more crash cymbal and Kurt adds an additional word which he repeats over and over until the songs gut-wrenching end, “A denial.” The word is operating two-fold- as both a denial of reality by society and the denial of the outsider by society.

Album Cover for "Nevermind"

The ironic thing about Nirvana is that they became a victim of their own authenticity, as their style was duplicated and spread throughout the mainstream. For Kurt, this was a difficult cross to bear. He was even offended if someone wore a Guns N Roses t-shirt to a concert, since he felt that band was misogynistic and homophobic. Kurt typifies the apathetic sentimentality and rebellion against superficiality that plagued the youth of the nineties. Like his hero, Leadbelly, however, he became a caricature of himself. The last lines of his suicide note were, “I’m too much of an erratic, moody baby! I don’t have the passion anymore, and so remember, it’s better to burn out than to fade away.” Nirvana’s impact has never faded away, since the folky quality of their music forged an entire movement of unassuming emo rockers who took the place of the titans of rock, excess, sex and glam for an entire decade. This trend later gave birth to the indie movement, which served an entire community of musicians who did not want to feel they had to “sell out” and suffer a fate similar to Kurt Cobain’s. Generation X eventually proved they had an entrepreneurial spirit. They proved that they weren’t “slackers” after all, as they attempted to reconcile their values within a capitalist society. The song and the band gave birth to this backlash and changed music and society forever.

Click here to watch the video to Pearl Jam’s “Jeremy”
This was another song that defined Generation X, about a disgruntled teen who commits suicide in front of his class. Suicide was a big theme in the 90s. The next generation, Generation Y, would move on to outward violence with the uprising of school shootings.

The Elvis Phenomenon

Jazz heralded in an age where African American music would become the most popular music in the world. It was done with the proliferation of the music by white performers who would conform it to reflect white values. We have seen this throughout the history of popular music, from Elvis to the Beatles to Eminem to Kesha. Eminem, for example, was the best selling artist of the last decade, and even the Beatles are still on the charts, constantly re-releasing the same recorded music over and over again. All of these artists adapted black art forms into a form of communicating their own sentiment.

The history of jazz brings the debate about low-brow and high-brow music to the forefront again. Artists like Scot Joplin attempted to legitimize the form with an opera scored with ragtime music. He did not succeed. Eventually, jazz standard style would come to dominate the musical theater form. This brings to mind today’s recent surge in rock musicals and the legitimization of rock music as it is replaced by its seemingly low-brow counterpart, electronic music. Even Green Day is making a musical. It almost seems as though a generation has to age before a type of music is considered high-brow. This demonstrates how the music industry is not only fueled by race or class, but age, as well. For example, Mozart’s “Magic Flute” was regarded as low-brow at the time of its release, but is revered as a high brow piece of art now. Regardless, a lot of what constituted art as high-brow during the Jazz Age seemed to be related to cleansing the ethnicity or race out of the music.

Jazz music appealed to whites in America, as they struggled for liberation from Puritan values. This coincided with the woman’s rights movement. However, this movement was not relegated to the US alone. It swept all over the world, as people everywhere heralded in the modern era with its new mores and values.

Jazz music was also a dance-centered medium. It is interesting to think that music became more upbeat as technology sped life up. Dance crazes swept the country. With the proliferation of black music came an adoption of lifestyle, fashion, values and slang. What started as offensive renditions of African American dialect eventually became the mainstream acceptance of slang into the American vernacular. While jazz and its accompanying lifestyle did not account for the majority of the population, it was impossible to escape the effects of the jazz age. In addition, the music industry has been forever affected by the Elvis phenomenon it set in motion.

Setting the Wheels in Motion

The way the music industry began has shaped what it has become. While it adapts to the times and reflects changes in culture and technology, it is still what it began as: a form of art destined to be for profit, driven by big business and advertisers. Edison’s sole purpose for pushing his inventions was profit, and this is reflected on his quest to make the phonograph a “marketable machine.” The music industry’s inception was just as precarious and uncertain as its current future is, as they attempted to find various uses for the technology. The talking machine business which heralded in our current music industry began as a factory-run, industrialized, oligarchical industry. Like the 90s dot com bust, the talking machine was invested in heavily, at first, but had not found its proper niche yet, which would be the selling of recorded records with emphasis placed on cheap, mass production to maximize profit. Unfortunately, for the egomaniac Edison, the focus of the talking machine business switched from the technology to the artists that performed on records.

The talking machine business, in a sense, heralded in an age of globalization, since it operated on an international level. Since its beginning stages, record companies were set up in Europe to record European music that could be heard by Americans. With its initial emphasis on singers and its inability to record more than two to three minutes of sound, it also heralded in the age of singer-driven, three-minute pop songs that we still have today. Even in its early days, the industry had a smattering of indie companies which led the path for new music, such as blues and jazz, to reach the American public, showing the power of the industry as a cultural tool. Records were even produced to reflect different ethnic groups, although this marketing tactic was utilized to get those groups on board with purchasing “good” music, in an attempt to civilize the masses. Of course, this is one major change in today’s music industry, since it is the music of the masses that would eventually dictate its trends. Since the record player could be found in many people’s homes, it began to reflect the entertainment habits of the masses.

Like today, the industry was often filled with contradiction, as they sold records which reflected a nostalgia for the old world with new technology. Today, we still find bands like Rage Against the Machine on corporate labels, presenting us with a similar contradiction between the message and how it is being delivered. Like today, there were overarching trends and niche audiences, as music was marketed to people on the basis of class and race. There was a clear distinction between high and low brow art, which brings to mind an article I read on the white middle class’ aversion to disco, dance, and hip-hop music in favor of indie, experimental music that we see today. This distinction between what is popular and what is good is always being debated about on the underground scene. This has been commented on heavily in the press by Lady Gaga recently, which proves this is a debate that has not gone away. Is popular music low-brow? That is something I will comment on further in the future. What does seem clear is that the initial stages of the industry dictated what it would become and still is today, an industry wrought with contradiction and uncertainty.


Spam prevention powered by Akismet

Skip to toolbar